Heatwaves have a mounted interest in the last decade due to their negative impacts on infrastructure, the ecosystem and public health. Population exposure to heat stress is substantially influenced by the resilience of the built environment as people spend the majority of their time indoors.
The increased penetration of residential air-conditioners (AC); specifically vapor compression types, is regarded as one of the foremost causes of a dramatic rise in critical peak electricity demands requiring corresponding upgrades of electricity infrastructures. These upgrades requires heavy investments, consequently, driving up electricity prices.
The rising penetration of vapor compression air conditioning systems in Australian dwellings has raised the peak power demand. Consequently, the electrical infrastructure requires significant, costly upgrades that is invariably passed on to all end-users.
To combat increasing electricity prices due to the high operating costs of conventional reverse cycle air-airheat pumps (RC-AA-HP), they can be powered by standalone PV systems as a radical demand side energy management solution. However, the heavy power consumption of their compressors necessitates very large and expensive standalone hotovoltaic (PV) systems.
In Australia, heatwaves are the deadliest natural hazard and a major driver of peak electricity demand. The disproportionately high peak demand increases electricity prices, causes occasional blackouts and exacerbates energy poverty, all of which limit one’s ability to use air conditioning. Meanwhile, increased energy efficiency of dwellings may decrease their heat stress resistance.
This paper demonstrates that the integration of passive features during the design/construction of sustainable buildings requires thorough modelling at the design stage as some features may have unintended consequences resulting in occupant dissatisfaction, and resulting in the building using more energy to maintain comfort.
Heatwaves have been subject to significant attention in Australia and globally due to their negative impacts on the ecosystem, infrastructure, human health and social life. Measures to increase resilience to heatwaves, however, are mostly isolated in different disciplines.
The frequency and intensity of urban heatwaves (UHWs) have been growing worldwide due to climate change and the exacerbating effects of urban heat islands (UHIEs). UHWs have many negative impacts, including excess negative health outcomes (e.g. morbidity), energy (consumption and peak demand) and water consumption.