Proponents of low-carbon transformation face an uphill battle to reconfigure incumbent energy systems against powerful interests protecting the status quo. Australia's electricity sector is an example of such a system, wedded to fossil fuels and backed by much of the country's political establishment.
In developed economies a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions result from energy demand in the building sector. Many countries have recognized the need to mandate building energy performance standards as a key element of a national energy or climate change policy. The Commonwealth of Australia included energy efficiency provisions in the National Building Code early last decade.