This “Key Principles and Actions for Sustainable Cities and Communities” (hereafter referred as SUC KPAs), produced in accordance with goals of SUC, will be mainly applied to developing countries. In its early phase, the aim is to support the promotion and implementation of sustainable development of cities and communities in China.
SUC KPAs consist of three sections - Evaluation Criteria, Management Process and Key Action Points”. The SUC KPAs are applicable to both existing built cities and communities in particular to new urban areas and new communities in the future. All the technologies, strategies and projects proposed in the entire SUC KPAs document should meet the national standards of China.
More than half of the world’s human population currently lives in cities and is expected to be increased to three-fourths by 2050. China alone is predicted to add more than 300 million urban inhabitants in the next three decades. This burgeoning urban population growth presents enormous developmental and environmental challenges that need to be addressed by a robust sustainable development framework. Making cities and communities sustainable is essential to achieve sustainable human futures and the Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This document provides a holistic and integrated sustainable development framework for the development of liveable, economically productive, socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable cities and communities in China. The framework identifies key objectives and principles to achieve urban sustainability and provides specific guidelines for implementation and performance assessment. This framework, which consists of sustainability goals, management process and key action points, will directly assist Chinese cities and Governments in achieving the highest international standards in sustainable cities and communities.
Countries across the globe are likely to face significant challenges in coming years that will test the resilience of their cities. However, there is often a lack of proactive evidence-based analysis of available options and their outcomes as well as indicators of success or progress.
Sustainability assessment tools aim to promote high sustainability outcomes in residential buildings, ensuring less consumption of water, energy and less emission of greenhouse gases. However, existing literature often presents variations between the estimated outcomes from the assessment tools and actual outcomes after building occupation.
It has become increasingly important to study the urban heat island phenomenon due to the adverse effects on summertime cooling energy demand, air and water quality and most importantly, heat-related illness and mortality. The present article analyses the magnitude and the characteristics of the urban heat island in Sydney, Australia.