Australia has over 2 million PV installations given a combined capacity of over 11.1 gigawatts as of January 2019. This area experienced extremely rapid growth between 2010 and 2013 and has continued to grow. As Australia’s high capacity of PV installations, distributed energy markets have been established to capitalise on the available energy. Several markets are being trialled around the world including Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading, business-to-business energy trading, wholesale and retail energy, energy commodity trading, and others. The most common market is P2P trading which allows households to trade electricity.
Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger technology that can be used to securely store digital transactions. Blockchain has demonstrated great uptake potential in P2P energy trading with a growing number of start-up companies, pilots, trials, and research projects adopting the technology within their business model. The revolution of blockchain encourages innovation and enables a low-carbon transition and sustainability. According to Deloitte and PWC reports, blockchain has the potential to disrupt the energy sector using energy commodities as digital assets to be traded.
However, concerns over the energy use, the carbon footprint, and the cost of blockchain have recently generated debate. The carbon footprint and cost of blockchain are derived from its validation process which requires specialised hardware with computing power and vast amounts of electricity. Public perceptions on the impact this technology has on the environment and its associate costs have also garnered recent negative publicity. This reduces the perception of the benefits of blockchain technology. To investigate the impact of blockchain, the authors compare the energy consumed to support blockchain with the total energy saved from the electrical grid from deployment of blockchain-based P2P energy trading.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost and benefit of blockchain-based P2P energy trading. The energy consumed and carbons emitted from the blockchain validation process are quantified. The cost of blockchain technology is calculated as well to determine its economic value. This report also provides various insights into the transformation of P2P energy trading using different blockchain scalability solutions. Real data from operating P2P energy trading systems is used in this report.
Rapid global urbanization and the increase of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect make urban cooling a necessity as well as an opportunity to increase the liveability and amenity of cities. This review is a scoping study of the relevant worldwide UHI mitigation/adaptation...Read more
Australia's Chief Scientist Alan Finkel points out, in this interview, the need for Australia to develop better storage systems and reflects on the recent report from ACOLA. California Energy Commissioner Andrew McAllister, also warns Australia to pursue demand side...Read more
With regard to separation of food scraps for composting, this research identified that there are two important aspects often overlooked when the focus is only on behaviour: 1. Policy makers need to ensure that there are socio-technical systems supporting diverse groups of people...Read more
Agent-based modelling has the potential to provide insight into complex energy transition dynamics. Despite a recent emphasis of research on agent-based modelling and on energy transitions, an overview of how the methodology may be of value to understanding transition processes is still missing from the literature.
Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) with utility-scale renewable energy plants allow medium to large-scale electricity consumers to meet a proportion of their load demand using renewable electricity. This allows them to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while at the same time reducing their exposure to volatile and peak prices in the National Electricity Market (NEM).
The White Gum Valley (WGV) and other projects in the CRC for Low Carbon Living have created rich data for energy and water systems in exemplar low carbon precincts. The stored and dynamic data have been retained through other projects. The utilisation of the data in a real-life situation through visualisation has been the subject of this project.
With the increasing deployment of distributed solar PV, and more recently the increased interest in distributed batteries, optimising their deployment configurations and financial outcomes is now receiving more attention. Currently, when a customer exports PV electricity to its neighbours on the distribution network, the full distribution use of system charges are paid.