Conference paper

From rationalism to critical pragmatism: revisiting Arnstein’s ladder of public participation in co-creation and consultation

12 Nov 2019
Description

This paper uses Forester’s theory of critical pragmatism to contrast the IAP2 spectrum with Arnstein’s Ladder as ways of evaluating public consultation. With support from Sennett’s (2012) notions of dialogic and dialectic cooperation, the paper highlights the mismatch between assessing planned and actual outcomes, and suggests how the adoption of Arnstein’s Ladder alongside the IAP2 spectrum might help governments and cities to engage more meaningfully with their citizens.Read the paper HERE.

Access Rights Type: 
Open
Language: 
English
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