10 Jun 2018

Plastics are synthetic materials made from a range of organic polymers that are capable of being moulded when soft. Most plastics are currently made from fossil fuels, typically the by-products from the processing of oil or natural gas.

Technical report
14 Mar 2019

This report examines the potential for material efficiency and the resulting energy and emissions impact for key energy-intensive materials: steel, cement and aluminium. It includes deep dives on the buildings construction and vehicles value chains, and outlines key policy and stakeholder actions to improve material efficiency. 


Utilisation of Coal Combustion Product (CCP) from coal-fired power stations is of great interest in Australia. According to ADAA (Ash Development Association of Australia), in 2012, 12.8 Mt (million tonnes) of coal ash was produced from coal fired utilities in Australia [1]. Due to the increase in energy demands, the amount of coal ash continues to increase each year.

Other text
15 Jun 2014

This chapter aims to update the knowledge on the building sector since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) from a mitigation perspective. Buildings and activities in buildings are responsible for a significant share of GHG emissions, but they are also the key to mitigation strategies.


This Global Status Report by the Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction (GABC) reconfirms the significance of building energy consumption as a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

29 Jul 2016

This report reviews progress achieved by European Union Member States in reaching cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements for new and existing buildings, and also for building elements.

23 Dec 2015

This working paper brings together the findings of the first stage in this study, which focusses on the identification of 'macro-objectives' for the environmental performance of the EU building stock. This stage is intended to provide an initial 'top down' view of what the strategic priorities (the 'macro-objectives') should be for the building sector.

Working paper
16 Aug 2017

Developed as a common EU framework of core indicators for the sustainability of office and residential buildings, Level(s) provides a set of indicators and common metrics for measuring the environmental performance of buildings along their life cycle.

Draft report
09 Mar 2018

The purpose of this project is to identify and discuss potential policy instruments that can accelerate a transition toward a circular economy in the Nordic construction sector. Sixteen interviews were carried out with actors representing stakeholders from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

Policy report
05 Aug 2016

Most large developing countries have a building energy code or other building efficiency policies. However, testing and rating systems to assess the energy performance of building materials often lag behind these codes and policies. Building materials play a key role in setting the energy footprint of a building.

Conference paper
22 Nov 2016

The share of prefabricated modular residential buildings in the Australian construction market is growing mainly because they are quicker to erect on-site than traditional construction, and often cheaper; but how about their carbon footprint and more particularly their thermal performance?

Conference paper
11 Jun 2015

Australia is heavily reliant upon the use of coal for electric power generation with approximately 74.9% or 170,822 GWh of electricity in year 2010 to 2011 being generated through coal-fired power plants. Australia’s coal powered generators produce about 14 million tonnes of fly ash per year.