Current and newly built buildings will inevitably experience the effects of climate change, therefore, the design and performance of these buildings should consider weather data that includes some of the effects of climate change, instead of only using historical weather data. However, climate change weather data suitable for buildings performance simulation are typically unavailable.
Distributed electrical energy storage can help reduce the CO2 emissions associated with the use of electrical energy, better enabling distributed generation of energy from sources such as rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems.
The shade effect of a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) collector on a roof is usually ignored in building energy simulation in Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software. This disregard is due to either the unavailability of a suitable shading component in the simulation software or to an assumption that the shade on opaque surfaces, such as roofs, has small impact on the indoor temperature and the subsequent heating and cooling energy usage. However, for a relatively large collector area, ignoring the collector shadow on the roof may produce inaccurate results.
The Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme, commonly known as NatHERS, which is applied through software tools such as AccuRate Sustainability, has become the predominant pathway for complying with energy efficiency requirements within the National Construction Code of Australia. Current energy efficiency regulations have remained unchanged for a decade and there is an intention to increase these requirements, through mandating a higher minimum star rating for buildings.
Current regulatory pathways to compliance in energy efficiency for Australian housing are via provisions in the National Construction Code (NCC). This paper first identifies performance evaluation criteria set out in the code presented as a comparative analysis across the different methods of achieving compliance. Jurisdictional and concessional variations are discussed and thereafter an examination of the effect of specific design and location factors that impact the commonly used deemed to satisfy route to compliance.
The capacity of electricity infrastructure required for new precincts is often based on the types of customers that will occupy the new precinct and historical electricity use for each type of customer. However, modern energy-efficient precincts with local generation can have significantly lower demand than historical precincts.
The rapid adoption of reverse-cycle vapour-compression air-conditioning systems in residential buildings has produced an escalation in both total and peak electricity demand, necessitating a high level of investment in electricity infrastructure, and raising concerns over energy security and environmental issues. To address these issues, solar air-conditioning systems can be used in dwellings as a demand-side energy management solution. Two common types of residential solar systems are grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems and domestic water heating systems.