The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect can result in higher urban densities being significantly hotter (frequently more than 4 °C, even up to 10 °C) compared to their peri-urban surroundings. Such artificial heat stress increases the health risk of spending time outdoors and boosts the need for energy consumption, particularly for cooling during summer.
Cities are frequently experiencing artificial heat stress, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. The UHI effect is commonly present in cities due to increased urbanization, where anthropogenic heat and human modifications have altered the characteristics of surfaces and atmosphere.
Urban structure, hard surfaces and shortage of vegetation cause an artificial temperature increase in cities, known as the urban heat island effect. This paper determines the daily patterns of urban heat in Adelaide, Australia.
Australian cities are experiencing more heat stress in the 21st century than ever before. Public life in a majority of Australian cities suffer from heat stress in urban heat islands. This paper presents the concept of spatial heat resilience as the capability of the built environment to support outdoor activities during heat stress conditions. Outdoor activities and urban microclimate parameters were observed in selected public spaces of Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Outdoor neutral and critical thermal thresholds are determined.
Outdoor thermal discomfort pushes citizens into air-conditioned buildings and causes increased demand for water and electricity in the majority of Australian urban heat islands. Citizens’ spatial and activity preferences during heat stress conditions are under investigation in this paper. Citizens’ outdoor activity choices in different thermal environments were surveyed in Adelaide from September 2013 to April 2014.
Smarter urban futures require resilient built environment in the context of climate change. This chapter demonstrates the application of satellite-based surface cover and temperature data to support planning for urban heat resilience. Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 data is used to analyse the correlation of urban surface covers to the urban heat island effect in Adelaide. Methods for data source selection, surface cover classification, surface temperature calculation and analysis are detailed in this chapter.
Presentation: Thermal Resilience: A New Logic for Urban Greenery Work in progress report 26 September 2014 PhD Candiate: Eshan Sharifi Thesis title: An Exploration of the Impacts of Heat Stress on Vitality of Public Space and Outdoor Activity Patterns: A Case Study of Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.
Urban spaces are experiencing warmer microclimates as the combined result of climate change and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. While climate change projections indicate a likely increase of 2°C in Australia by 2070, an additional heat load of 10°C exists in the built environment. The question is how and to what extent contemporary public spaces can become more resilient to such high temperatures?
Climate change projections indicate a likely 3.8°C increase in the average temperature in Australia by 2090. During summer, outdoor heat-stress causes significant thermal discomfort, altering outdoor living preferences. This paper aims to explore the neutral and critical thresholds for outdoor thermal adaptation. The paper reports on outdoor activity change during different outdoor microclimates in Darling harbour, Sydney. Results indicate that outdoor participants adjust their insulation and activity rate by an outdoor neutral thermal threshold of 28-30°C.
During summer heatwaves, public spaces are frequently warmer than human thermal comfort preferences in a majority of Australian Cities. Citizens’ preferences of public space elements and supportive features during heat-stress conditions are under particular focus in this paper. Outdoor activity choices in different thermal environments were surveyed in Adelaide from September 2013 to April 2014. This post-activity survey indicates that necessary, optional and social activities decreased during outdoor heat-stress more than any other thermal conditions.