Australia has had seven extreme heatwaves since the beginning of the 20th century. During heatwaves, public spaces in cities are frequently warmer than is confortable for humans. The regional warming projection of 2-5°C in Australia (by 2070) will be added to an existing 4-8°C extra heat in higher urban densities. This extra urban heat is because of urban structures, land cover, lifestyle and lack of landscape. Under question is how and to what extent contemporary public spaces can become more resilient to emerging higher temperatures in cities while maintaining their usability.
The built environment has value. Most commonly, that value is established through market prices for rent or purchase. Some elements of value, while recognised as important, are under-appreciated as it is difficult for them to be directly monetised or quantified in other terms.