This paper aims to revisit the way that distributed energy resources (DERs) interact with the present structures of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM), and consider opportunities to improve the interface between centralized and distributed resource operation and investment.
Local electricity sharing schemes have the potential to play an increased role in the Australian National Electricity Market as the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) continues to grow. These models allow participants to share energy between separately owned and operated DERs, however are largely untested.
This paper outlines opportunities for, and barriers to, increasing PV deployment on apartment buildings in Australia. With PV penetration reaching 40% of residential dwellings in some parts of the country, access to renewable energy for the 14% of Australians who live in apartments has lagged behind.
Solar is an excellent investment for almost all Australian households, but there are a wide range of savings, depending on the characteristics of household electricity consumption, retail tariffs and roof characteristics. Nevertheless, the majority of households installing a wide range of PV system sizes under different types of tariffs can expect a payback of between 3-7 years.
Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) with utility-scale renewable energy plants allow medium to large-scale electricity consumers to meet a proportion of their load demand using renewable electricity. This allows them to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while at the same time reducing their exposure to volatile and peak prices in the National Electricity Market (NEM).
The standard mathematical approach used to calculate photovoltaic (PV) array spacing contains a number of assumptions that limits its use to PV arrays installed on horizontal surfaces. This paper utilises vector analysis to develop a new method to calculate array spacing and potential system size for any combination of PV array and surface tilt and orientation.
Despite potential advantages of load aggregation and scale discounts, few of Australia's 2.3 million apartment residents are amongst the country's 1.8 million solar prosumers. However, embedded networks can be used to distribute rooftop photovoltaic generation to households if split incentives and regulatory barriers are overcome.
Over 1.7 Australian households have taken the opportunity to generate some of their own power and reduce both their electricity bills and carbon emissions by installing rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. However, regulatory, technical, financial and organisational challenges have largely prevented Australia's growing number of urban apartment dwellers from accessing these benefits.