European legislation makes nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEBs) a standard by 2020. The technology is available and proven; however, the large-scale uptake of nZEB construction and renovation remains a challenge. ZEBRA2020 monitored the market uptake of nZEBs across Europe and provided data and knowledge on how to reach the nZEB standard. This information was structured and analysed to derive recommendations. ZEBRA2020 covers 17 European countries and almost 90% of the EU/EEA building stock and population.
Shopping centres are a very peculiar kind of buildings due to the specific final energy uses (mainly related to lighting, ventilation, cooling and refrigeration in presence of food supermarkets) and the complexity of the overall system. The need to ensure a certain sales volume, and the state of constant transformation (addressed by marketing reasons) drive the energy retrofitting actions.