After the full urbanization of the Seoul during the late 1980s several new towns where established outside the Greenbelt. Several push-and-pull factors have followed and influenced the rapid urbanization of the capital region of Korea. Currently more than 23 Million inhabitants are living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This has become one of the biggest urban agglomerations in the world. The greenbelt has had a significant impact on the whole of the SMA. Due to the containment by the greenbelt, an intensive urbanization has occurred within the constrained Seoul City.
The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important factor in global climate regulation. Consequently, it is important to examine how carbon flows and cycles between different pools and how carbon stocks change in response to afforestation, reforestation, deforestation, and other land-cover and land-use activities.