Global warming poses particular challenges for urban areas due to the greater intensity of rainfall and issues of stormwater runoff, and the heat island effect generated by the reflection of the sun off hard surfaces, such as buildings and road pavements; for example, in Australian cities (i.e., Sydney), roads account for approximately 25% of all urban land use. The challenge for road authorities is to implement green infrastructure in road planning, design and implementation as the term “green infrastructure” has appeared increasingly throughout the world in land management and planning. Despite these environmental challenges, traditional highway engineering practices use arguments regarding the economic inefficiencies of urban traffic congestion to justify the business case for road-widening schemes and new road construction projects with associated de-forestation and vegetation loss.
An international literature review and site visits of green infrastructure best practice in Australia, Singapore, the U.K. and the USA is reported. A typical road authority project is described in Sydney, Australia, where the initial design concept to accommodate growth in all modes of transport was road widening and land acquisition, but the authors persuaded the local and state government authorities to consider other options to “green” the infrastructure, particularly opportunities to add trees and vegetation near the roadway, which provide the additional bonus of managing surface water runoff. From this general problem, the case for, and value to, road authorities to develop green infrastructure guidelines for project planning and implementation, are presented. The conclusions include ongoing research to formulate draft guidelines for governments based on a holistic approach to the planning and design of high-density urban development around transport nodes that includes green infrastructure principles.
Rapid global urbanization and the increase of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect make urban cooling a necessity as well as an opportunity to increase the liveability and amenity of cities. This review is a scoping study of the relevant worldwide UHI mitigation/adaptation...Read more
Research showed that one-quarter of Sydney respondents were open to consolidating property for sale with neighbours. However, consolidated lot sales are not part of the business model of most real estate agencies, local government, or property developers. It’s an area where the...Read more
Financing the upfront costs of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in buildings can be a significant barrier to the expansion of sustainable, low carbon buildings, despite this being a low-cost option on the carbon abatement curve. Systematic literature on...Read more
Cities and states are always looking for ways to more efficiently and effectively deliver public services, such as flood management, resource conservation, pollution prevention, social equity and human health. Green infrastructure is an integrated set of strategies that help realize these outcomes in the built environment through the deployment of design, materials and methods that uses or replicates natural systems.
The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important factor in global climate regulation. Consequently, it is important to examine how carbon flows and cycles between different pools and how carbon stocks change in response to afforestation, reforestation, deforestation, and other land-cover and land-use activities.
In this report, the World Bank and World Resources Institute show how the next generation of infrastructure projects can tap natural systems and, where appropriate, integrate green and gray infrastructure.
Urban areas are usually warmer than their rural surroundings, a phenomenon known as the “heat island effect.” As cities develop, more vegetation is lost and more surfaces are paved or covered with buildings. The change in ground cover results in less shade and moisture to keep urban areas cool. Built-up areas also evaporate less water, which contributes to elevated surface and air temperatures.