07 Sep 2018

This study describes the results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) applied to 24 statistically-based dwelling archetypes, representative of the EU housing stock in 2010. The aim is to quantify the average environmental impacts related to housing in Europe and to define reference values (baseline scenario) for policies development.

Journal article
14 Jun 2019

This report features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle.

10 May 2019

The Carbon Value Engineering project aims to maximise the reduction of embodied carbon in the built environment. Rather than proposing a new process for these reductions, it adapts the industry-standard practice of value engineering (VE) for integrated carbon and cost minimisation. The project set out to answer two research questions:

31 Mar 2016


  • Biogas electricity is the single largest carbon offset for land-applied biosolids.
  • This offset varies with primary-to-WAS ratio, SRT, sludge age and WWTP technology.
  • Transport impacts are smaller than total fugitive GHG emissions in the plant.
  • The fertiliser substitution offset depends on the use of total or available nutrient values.
  • Soil carbon sequestration credits are important for land-applied biosolids LCAs.


Journal article
16 Aug 2017

This document is the companion to parts 1 and 2 of the guidance on how to use Level(s). In part 1 a general introduction to Level(s) is provided, together with in Part 2 an overview of the macro-objectives, performance indicators and the three Levels of performance assessment (Level(s) - Part 1 and 2). The three Levels are:

Technical report
16 Aug 2017

Developed as a common EU framework of core indicators for the sustainability of office and residential buildings, Level(s) provides a set of indicators and common metrics for measuring the environmental performance of buildings along their life cycle. As well as environmental performance, which is the main focus, it also enables other important related aspects of the performance of buildings to be assessed using indicators for health and comfort, life cycle cost and potential future risks to performance.

Draft report
01 Oct 2017

The reduction of the energy consumption and carbon emissions in the building sector is an important target for actions to mitigate the climate changes and different actions are being carried out to promote a transition to a low carbon built environment. However, present standards are mainly focused on new buildings which may result counter-productive in existing ones, due to their technical, functional and economic constraints.

Journal article
02 Apr 2018

There is growing concern about the effect that buildings are having on the environment. Mitigation strategies tend to focus on one life cycle stage, usually the operational stage, leaving the other life cycle stages, such as manufacturing and construction, largely ignored. The slow uptake of whole life cycle design is further hindered by the uncertainties associated with the economic implications of life cycle environmental optimisation.

01 Mar 2018

This report presents the methodology and results of a study investigating the consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from 79 cities. 
To support evidence-based climate action planning, many cities have developed sector-based GHG inventories using standards such as the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC).

05 Mar 2018

This report presents the methodology and results of a study investigating the consumption based greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from 79 cities, carried out by the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) in partnership with the University of Leeds (United Kingdom), the University of New South Wales (Australia), and Arup.

20 Mar 2017

Concrete is the second most used material after water and the production of cement is responsible for 5–8% of global carbon dioxide emissions. The development of low-carbon concretes is pursued worldwide to help the construction industry make its contribution to decarbonising the built environment and achieving carbon reduction targets agreed under the Paris Climate Agreement. However, there is uncertainty around the actual amount of greenhouse gas emissions that can be avoided by employing alternative types of concrete.